Themes

1. Science and Technology

Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning for all. 

Sustainable Development Goal Target of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is the dedicated target to capacity- building and aims to "Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation”

Strong national health research systems are needed to improve health systems and attain better health. For developing countries to indigenize health research systems, it is essential to build research capacity. The positive features should be reviewed and weaknesses of various approaches to capacity building, emphasizing that complementary approaches to human resource development work best in the context of a systems and long-term perspective. 

International cooperation in space exploration has the potential to provide significant benefits to all participants, particularly if managed well. Benefits in the form of monetary efficiency, programmatic and political sustainability, and workforce stability will accrue to those partners who choose to approach space exploration as a mutually beneficial endeavor. Furthermore, international cooperation must be explicitly incorporated as an aspect, and goal, of a modern space exploration program to enable coordination prior to the construction of new hardware. Such coordination can happen on both the government and industry levels and allows for advance planning and standardization that can enhance the strategic use of redundancy through interoperability. Finally, the promotion of a set of industrial standards for cooperation in space exploration will enable the exercise of leadership in future stages of the Vision for Space Exploration. If the vision is to succeed, the United States, in particular, must engage its partners by reaffirming and strengthening its commitment to the International Space Station to maintain its diplomatic credibility for future exploration endeavors.

The 2030 Agenda, adopted at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015, positioned Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) as key means of implementation of the SDGs, and launched the UN Technology Facilitation Mechanism (TFM). The Annual Multi-Stakeholder Forum for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI Forum), supported by the Inter-Agency Task Team on Science, Technology and Innovation for the SDGs (IATT), has been the main fora for TFM to discuss topics of common interests of Member States and STI stakeholders in context of the 2030 Agenda. 
 

2. Human Health and well-Being

Universal health coverage is a key health target in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that has the means to link equitable social and economic development. As a concept firmly based on equity, it is widely accepted at international and national levels as important for populations to attain ‘health for all’ especially for marginalized groups. However, implementing universal coverage has been fraught with challenges and the increasing privatization of health care provision adds to the challenge because it is being implemented in a health system that rests on a property regime that promotes inequality. This paper asks the question, ‘What does an equitable health system look like?’ rather than the usual ‘How do you make the existing health system more equitable?’ 

Border health is an important and related area of public health, which has grown over time in the US and Mexico border region.  While border health has only been a focus of federal and state health departments since the 1990’s, Arizona has been a leader with a unique history of binational work and collaboration with our sister state of Sonora on many fronts such as Public Health and Health Services, Arts and Culture, Environment, Transportation, Commerce, Education, Agriculture, among others. Many if not all of these issues are intimately related to public health as they address the social determinants of health.

The world population continues to grow, much more effort and innovation will be urgently needed in order to sustainably increase agricultural production, improve the global supply chain, decrease food losses and waste, and ensure that all who are suffering from hunger and malnutrition have access to nutritious food. Many in the international community believe that it is possible to eradicate hunger within the next generation and are working together to achieve this goal.

World leaders at the 2012 Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) reaffirmed the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food, consistent with the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger. The UN Secretary-General’s Zero Hunger Challenge launched at Rio+20 called on governments, civil society, faith communities, the private sector, and research institutions to unite to end hunger and eliminate the worst forms of malnutrition.

While global poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 2000, one in ten people in developing regions are still living with their families on less than the international poverty line of US$1.90 a day, and there are millions more who make little more than this daily amount. Significant progress has been made in many countries within Eastern and Southeastern Asia, but up to 42% of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa continues to live below the poverty line.

Poverty is more than the lack of income and resources to ensure a sustainable livelihood. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making.

Economic growth must be inclusive to provide sustainable jobs and promote equality. Social protection systems need to be implemented to help alleviate the suffering of disaster-prone countries and provide support in the face of great economic risks. These systems will help strengthen responses by afflicted populations to unexpected economic losses during disasters and will eventually help to end extreme poverty in the most impoverished areas

The overall poverty rate – measured by income – remained stable in 2017 in Latin America, following increases recorded in 2015 and 2016; however, the proportion of persons living in extreme poverty continued to rise, following the trend observed since 2015, according to the report by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

In 2017, the number of people living in poverty reached 184 million (30.2% of the population), of whom 62 million live in extreme poverty (10.2% of the population, the highest percentage since 2008), according to the report, Social Panorama of Latin America 2018, presented  by Alicia Bárcena, Executive Secretary of the United Nations regional organization, at a press conference held in Santiago, Chile. This is a significant issue that must be thoroughly investigated at the conference.

3. NATURAL and BUILT ENVIRONMENTS

We need to make sure we are tackling the most important problems that residents have. Cities need to align, empower and grow innovation in a way that is legitimate and agile. Public sector innovation. Non-Profit Foundation. We should Join the Discussions. Receive information. Public Impact. Follow us on social media.  Innovate with intention. U.S. Cities Future. 

By 2050, two-thirds of all people will live in cities. Each year, 72.8 million more people live in urban areas. That’s the equivalent of a new San Diego appearing every week. It is interesting to know by 2030, climate change alone could force up to 77 million urban residents. Climate change, declining air and water quality, rapid population growth—it can seem overwhelming to even contemplate solutions to such global challenges,

Better understanding of the nature and the role of water diplomacy will not only help scholars in their research on shared water resources but could also improve policy advice.  In addition, a clear definition will impact how the media reports on challenges relating to transboundary watercourses and approaches, affecting how the public interprets and responds to water challenges.  Together, clarifying what water diplomacy is, and what it isn’t, will help towards ensuring the long-term cooperative and sustainable management of rivers that cross jurisdictional boundaries.

The links between policy and practice in natural resource management are often depicted as a cyclical and rational process. In reality, policymaking and implementation are often irrational, unpredictable and highly political. Many science and knowledge-based institutions undertake rigorous research with the aim of influencing policy, but often their influence is much less than intended. Understanding who influences policy at different levels, and how, is crucial to ensure that science is deployed most effectively so as to have an influence on conservation and natural resource management.

Conservation and Sustainable Development presents a variety of innovative ways that have been used to influence policy processes, from community pressure groups through elected and unelected leaders, to scientific discourse at the levels of directors of economic planning and conservation.

Adaptation means anticipating the adverse effects of climate change and taking appropriate action to prevent or minimize the damage they can cause or taking advantage of opportunities that may arise. It has been shown that well planned, early adaptation action saves money and lives later.

Examples of adaptation measures include: using scarce water resources more efficiently; adapting building codes to future climate conditions and extreme weather events; building flood defenses and raising the levels of dykes; developing drought-tolerant crops; choosing tree species and forestry practices less vulnerable to storms and fires; and setting aside land corridors to help species migrate.